1-2a: Though many in Israel have rejected the Gospel message, God has not in turn rejected his people. Paul uses himself as an example of this.
2b-5: The prophet Elijah grew so weary at one point (1 Kings 19) that he believes he is the only prophet left. But God told him that he still had 7,000 left, a remnant chosen by grace.
6: God saves us by grace and not on the basis of our works, otherwise grace would no longer be grace.
7-10: Those who rejected God had their hearts hardened.
11-12: Through the trespass of Israel salvation has come to the Gentiles, making Israel jealous. But God has not turned his back on Israel, and it is through Israel’s sin that God brought salvation to the Gentiles. Therefore, how much more greater will it be when Israel also turns to Christ.
13-15: Speaking to Gentiles here, Paul again hopes to make his fellow Jews jealous, and thus save some of them. For if their rejection of Christ means the reconciliation of the world (that God is saving both Jews and Gentiles), the Jew’s acceptance of him will bring life from the dead.
16: Paul is saying that if the firstfruits of the dough is holy, or the root of a plant is holy, the rest of the dough or branches of the plant will be holy (he is speaking here of the Jews). This does not mean that all of the will be saved, but it does encourage the belief that many Jews will come to Christ.
17-21: The Gentiles are to remember that even though they have been grafted in, they are not to be arrogant towards the Jews, for it is not you who support the root, but the root who supports you. In other words, God by his grace has saved them (us), and we should be humbled by this reality. So do not become proud, but fear. This means that the Jews that have been “broken off” have done so by their unbelief and unfaithfulness. This is a call to the Gentiles to remain faithful. For if God did not spare the natural branches (the Jews who rejected Christ) neither will he spare you.
22-25: We see here that God is gracious and forgiving to those who turn to him, both towards the Jews and the Gentiles.
Question: Paul gives a pretty clear warning that everyone (even the Jews) is “cut off” from God apart from a relationship with Christ. We also see that God is gracious and forgiving to anyone that turns to him. How does this section encourage you to seek Jesus, and give you a reverent fear of what it means to reject Him?
25-27: This most likely is again referring to the end times, where a large number of Jewish people will come to faith.
30-31: God gave the gift of salvation to the Gentiles when it was unexpected, since you were at one time disobedient to God. In the same way, though many Jews at this time (and still today) too have now been disobedient, God’s mercy will still be displayed when Israel begins to turn back to him.
36: As the creator and sustainer of everything, God alone deserves glory forever.
Question: A theme throughout Romans 11 is the grace and mercy of God. At any time whenever someone would turn to him, God will always forgive and welcome them back to himself. No matter what they have done or where they have been, no one is beyond God’s grace and mercy. When you think about the people in your life who seem as if they would never come to faith, does this chapter encourage you at all? If God can save anyone, is there anyone who you have “given up” on that you shouldn’t?
 “Life from the dead” is typically believed to mean one of two things. The first view is that if large numbers of Jews begin turning to Christ it will essentially lead us to Christ’s 2nd coming. The other view is simply that this is a figurative expression meaning great spiritual revival will break out.